November 22, 2023


Sofema Aviation Services (SAS) identifies key elements suitable for Risk Consideration Elements consideration when building an EASA Part 145 Risk Register.

Management Considerations

  • Limited or lack of management commitment
  • Management do not demonstrate support for the activity
  • Lack of or incomplete description of roles, accountabilities and responsibilities
  • Limited or lack of resource availability or planning, including staffing
  • Lack of or ineffective policies
  • Incorrect or incomplete procedures including instructions
  • Lack of or poor management and labor relationships
  • Lack of or ineffective organizational structure
  • Poor organizational safety culture
  • Lack of or ineffective safety management processes (including risk management, safety assurance, auditing, training and resource allocation)
  • Lack or ineffective audit procedures
  • Lack of or limited resource allocation
  • Incorrect or incomplete or lack of training and knowledge transfer. (Note: Training should reflect the needs of the organization.(Accidents have shown that inadequate training is a hazard and may even lead to accidents.)
  • Unofficial organizational structures Note: These structures may be of benefit but also may lead to a hazard.
  • Growth, strikes, recession or organizational financial distress Mergers or acquisition
  • Changes, upgrades or new tools, equipment, processes or facilities
  • Incorrect or ineffective shift/crew member changeover procedures
  • Changes or turnover in management or employees
  • Informal processes (Standard Operating Procedures)
  • Lack of or poor or inappropriate materials/equipment acquisition decisions
  • Lack of, poor staffing recruitment/assignment (Note: Staff should be hired or assigned according to organizational needs but also according to their skills,
  • qualifications and abilities. An employee with the wrong skill set can be a hazard. This includes management.

Related to Documentation Process and Procedures

  • Incorrect, poor or lack of internal and external communication including language barriers
  • Lack of, incorrect or incomplete manuals, or operating procedures (including maintenance)
  • Lack of, incorrect or incomplete employee duty descriptions
  • Lack of, incorrect, incomplete or complicated document update processes
  • Lack of, incorrect or incomplete reports and records
  • Lack of, incorrect or incomplete control of necessary documents for personnel (licenses, ratings, and certificates)

Related to Human Circumstances

  • Heart attack, Stroke, Kidney stone, Seizure
  • Nausea, Diarrhea, Carbon monoxide, Medication, Fatigue
  • Influenza, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (TI), Urinary TI
  • Color vision, Visual field limitations, Mobility limitations, Colostomy bag, Hearing loss
  • Fatigue (lack of sleep), Alcohol and substance abuse, Medications, Complacency
  • Financial, Birth of child, Divorce, Bereavement, Challenging timelines, Inadequate resources
  • Inflight turbulence cabin crew injury, injury caused to personnel during ground aircraft operations or luggage handling
  • Jet lag, Paint shop, Solvents, Chemical/Biological exposures,Noise, Vibrations, Distractions
  • Human factors related to design, manufacturing, maintenance and operations.
  • Over saturation of digital information

Related to Maintenance

  • Lack of or poor airworthiness verification
  • Lack of or poor verification of equipment and instruments necessary to a particular flight or operation
  • Poor fueling processes
  • Lack of or poor aircraft dispatch or release
  • Lack of or poor maintenance release
  • Lack of, or poor communication (ATC, ramp, maintenance, flight Ops, cabin, dispatch, etc.)
  • Language barriers (Multiple languages)
  • Poor HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning)
  • Noisy work environment
  • Lack of, or poor Lighting
  • Poor facilities (inadequate space, equipment or infrastructure)
  • Lack of, or poor maintenance release
  • Lack of, or poor maintenance programs (Including imprecise maintenance data or transcription errors when creating job-cards)
  • SUPS (Suspected Unapproved Parts)
  • Maintenance movement of aircraft/run-ups
  • Lack of, or poor communication
  • Language barriers in maintenance teams (Multiple languages)
  • Poor control of outsourced maintenance (any maintenance completed outside the maintenance facility or organization including third party maintenance)
  • Lack of or, inappropriate specialized processes (including NDT, plating, welding, composite repairs etc…)
  • Lack of or, improper Airworthiness Directive Control
  • Ineffective or lack of procedures to ensure materials, parts, or assemblies are worked or fabricated through a series of precisely controlled steps, and that undergo heat-treating, brazing, welding, and processing of composite materials). physical, chemical, or metallurgical
  • Lack of or, inadequate reliability program
  • Lack of, or poor tool accountability (Including traceability or registration)
  • Lack of or unsafe or unreliable equipment, tools, and safety equipment;
  • Inappropriate layout of controls or displays
  • Mis-calibrated tools
  • Inappropriate or incorrect use of tools for the task
  • Lack of, or inadequate instructions for equipment, tools, and safety equipment
  • Complex design (Difficult fault isolation, multiple similar connections, etc.)
  • Inaccessible component/area
  • Aircraft configuration variability (Similar parts on different models)

Next Steps

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Airworthiness Directive Control, EASA Part 145, EASA SMS Compliance, Hazard, Human Circumstances, Maintenance, NDT, Risk Register, Safety Assurance, Safety Management System, SAS blogs, SAS Library, Standard Operating Procedures